These models incorporate the full chromatic scale and allow the player to play in any key using one harmonica. Chromatic models provide the complete 12 note octave with all sharps and flats. The preferred instrument for Jazz and Classical, chromatic harmonicas are also used for Popular Music and in some instances for blues.
Defining The Chromatic Harmonica
Reprinted here by permission of the author
When I first learned about chromatic harmonicas I found it confusing as to what harps did what and worked in what way. My first “chromatic harmonica” was a Hohner Koch which strictly speaking is a slide harp. I bought it as a result of asking the shop keeper for a chromatic harmonica. What’s more it was in key of G which only confused matters for me. I made the same mistake again because I wanted a chromatic harmonica in C and I still didn’t know the difference between a slide harp and a chromatic. But this time around I also got Mel Bay’s “The Complete Chromatic Harmonica Method” by Phil Duncan and compared the Koch against the book and realized my mistake. I took both the book and the Koch back. I said “I just bought this harp, I want to exchange it for this.” and pointed at the cover of the book. At which point the shop attendant produced a Hohner Super Chromonica in key of C, I paid the difference and walked away a little wiser. I now want to share what I have since learned for those who are as confused as I was.
Typical Chromatic Harmonica
By Typical Chromatic Harmonicas I am talking about a harmonica that has a full major scale in the key of the harp repeated every 4 holes for each octave, and by pressing the button it raises the pitch of each hole by a semi-tone. The most common key available for a chromatic is key of C, the same as the white keys of a piano. To continue the comparison by pressing the chromatic’s button you can then play the black keys on the keyboard along with a few of the white ones.
The Bass harp & Chord harp can be considered chromatic harmonicas. And there are other harmonicas which could be considered chromatic harmonicas which I will cover and why I don’t consider them typical chromatic harmonicas.
Despite the fact a chromatic can be played in any key some are in fact available in different keys.
There are a few reasons why:
· Probably most understandably, if you want to be able to play chords in a particular key on your chromatic you need to have the right notes next to each other for the key you are playing in.
· Having a harp tuned to a key can make playing in that key or related keys much easier as the amount of slide use is reduced.
· A similar point is, some keys on a C tuned harp have predominantly draw or blow notes which can lead to breath control issues.
· Also it can be easier playing by ear with a harmonica in the same key of the song.
A key of C chromatic harmonica is a satisfactory instrument in itself. Its like a piano or wind instrument; by sticking to one tuning you can ingrain where all the notes are and go on to learn how to play in any key on that same instrument. Eventually with lots of practice and experience you will be able to work out how to transpose a tune into the key you want to play in without having to reach for another harmonica. However if you enjoy playing chords or should you find it easier to play on different key harps in your favorite keys, you may consider what other tuned chromatics are available.
The 12 hole Chromatic Harmonica
This is probably the most common chromatic available. They have a 3 octave range with 48 tones. Most models are available in a number of keys. With practice these harps are reasonably easy to hold, cup and play. I would strongly recommend anybody wanting to buy their first chromatic harmonica go for a 12 hole chromatic in key of C. A 12 hole Chromatic Harmonica in key of C major has the following note layout:
|12 Hole Chromatic, Key of C|
Blow hole one blow is middle C. However when playing songs that go below middle C, it is common practice to use the lowest octave on the harp as the lowest octave in the song and work up from there, effectively playing the song in a higher octave. Of course the harp has a three octave range, so if your part extends passed this then you simply need to substitute lower or higher octave notes which is reasonably acceptable to the ear. Note that every 4 holes has the same pattern, except for the last hole. This means that when you have mastered playing one octave, the rest are the same. So if you learn one octave, you have the lot as it’s just a matter of moving along 5 holes either way.
The only trick with chromatic layout is the highest note, instead of continuing the hole pattern, which as you might see from the table means you have two C’s (B# & C are enharmonics, they sound similar) and with the slide in the draw note of hole 12 is a D. This gives just that bit extra range to the harp, and from experience I can say I am glad that this has been included. It takes a little practice, but when you are playing hole 12 it is hard to not know you are there, so remembering the layout is different only takes some practice. The note range of a 12 hole chromatic harmonica is pretty much on a par with a lot of woodwind instruments. The Hohner Super Chromonica is one example of a 12 hole chromatic harmonica. Hohner, Hering, Huang and Suzuki all sell 12 hole chromatic harmonicas.
The 16 hole Chromatic Harmonica
These big animals are similar to 12 hole chromatics, their advantage is they have an extra octave below middle C. Because of their size it takes more practice and attention to get a solid hold and cup around these harps. Also with the extra holes and octaves to switch between they require more practice to automatically know where all the notes are. A 16 hole Chromatic Harmonica in key of C major has the following note layout:
|16 Hole Chromatic, Key of C|
Hole one blow is C below middle C, so the next set of C’s are middle C. On some 16 hole harps the first octave holes are numbered 1 to 4 with dots above them, then the remaining holes are numbered 1 to 12. Other 16 hole chromatics are numbered from 1 to 16. It depends on the make, model and release date.
Hohner and Hering sell 16 hole chromatic harmonicas.
Varieties of Chromatic Harmonicas
Different tuned 12 hole chromatics are available in various keys or ranges, such as Hering’s Baritone or Hohner’s Tenor tuned CX12 and Chromonica, all of which are tuned in key of C but a whole octave lower than standard 12 hole chromatics. A bit like having the first 12 holes of a 16 hole chromatic. Also the Hering Baritono lacks the extra high note on draw 12 slide in. There are a few 10 hole and 14 hole chromatics available that cover 2 1/2 or 3 1/2 octaves respectively. They work the same as 12 and 16 hole chromatic harmonicas, however their note layout starts slightly differently due to the incomplete octaves. The Hohner Chrometta is a chromatic harmonica that comes in 10 hole and 14 hole models. Hohner Meisterklasse is a 14 hole quality harmonica.
Also a lot of people customize and/or custom tune their harmonicas, replacing the comb, the mouthpiece, and possibly swapping the reedplates to change the way the harmonica plays which they find easier. C/F tuning is where the blow 4 hole is retuned from C/C# (slide out/slide in) to Bb/B which makes certain keys a lot easier to play with minimal disadvantage. Flat slide tuning is where when you press the slide the hole goes down a semitone, this is a popular tuning for Irish music. Customizers can usually improve the overall performance, comfort, feel and possibly the longevity of harmonicas. As you gain experience & wish to invest more in your instrument, this is definitely worth investigating.
The remaining harps are not what I consider typical chromatic harmonicas, but I think they need to be included because of their chromatic ability.
Slide harps are two diatonic 10 hole short harp reedplates selected by a slide which when pushed in moves from the lower pitch reed plate to a semitone higher reed plate. Similar to the effect of the button on a chromatic, this almost gives a full chromatic range of tones. The reedplates are different from diatonic reedplates because the draw and blow reeds for each hole are mounted next to each other. Not dissimilar to how chromatics are made. But they generally do not have windsavers on the majority of holes like a chromatic harmonica. As the reedplate tunings are generally the same as diatonic short harps, to get the full chromatic three octave range you need to know how to at least draw bend to fill in the missing notes. There are also variations on the slide harmonica available where pressing the slide lowers the tone by a semitone called “flat-slide” harmonica. This has the advantage of simulating bends on a standard short harp.
An example of a slide harp is a Hohner Koch which comes in key of C and G.
Valved Diatonic Harps
A valved short harp in the hands of an experienced player becomes a chromatic harmonica of sorts. It is simply a 10 hole diatonic short harp with valves. Using the same valves found in most chromatics. Unlike chromatics the windsavers are only added to draw reeds 1 to 6 and blow reeds 7 to 10. By doing this and using a slightly different bending techniques, a practiced harpist can play many more tones than are normally available on a standard short harp. The advantage over a chromatic is the range of expression and tone. Notes and bends available on a valved short harp by an experienced harper
Quote from IronMike, an experienced valved harp performer:
“… If you use the typical bending technique, valved reeds will prove unbendable…”
“…I valve the bendable reeds in mine – 1-6D and 7-10B. This allows me to bend the normally unbendable reeds 1-6B and 7-10D, using a resonant embouchure…”
However the clarity, quality, accuracy of pitch and availability of any bent note is highly dependant on the ability and experience of the player. To achieve all the bends on a valved diatonic requires a lot of work and practice.
(Thanks both to Ironman and BrassHa’per for this information.)
Suzuki sell Promaster harps which are allegedly good quality diatonic harps. They can be purchased with valves installed. Refer to the links page for online harp shops.
Playing 10 Hole Diatonic Short Harps Chromatically
This is beyond the scope of this page, however it is possible by using overblows and overdraws to play diatonic harps in a chromatic fashion and if I am going to make a site about chromatic harmonicas I have to at least mention this. Some very skilled harp musicians have mastered the technique of overblowing and overdrawing certain notes on the diatonic 10 hole short harp which gives them the full 12 semitones for each octave. However like the valved diatonics the quality and accuracy of these tones is very dependant on the ability and experience of the player. I understand overblows require regular practice to maintain consistently accurate pitch. To use this technique generally the short harp being played needs to be set up with the smallest practical reed gapping which requires some work on the average harmonica.